The defense community in Maryland is an R&D powerhouse.
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An electro-optic device with a doped semiconductor base and a plurality of pixels on the semiconductor base, each pixel including: a multiple quantum well formed on the semiconductor base, an oppositely doped semiconductor layer on the multiple quantum well, and a top electrode on the semiconductor layer, the top electrode shaped to produce an approximately uniform lateral resistance in the pixel. An embodiment is a large area modulator for modulating retro-reflector systems, which typically use large area surface-normal modulators with large lateral current flow. Uniform resistance to each part of the modulator decreases location dependence of frequency response. A chirped grid electrode balances semiconductor sheet resistance and metal line resistance components of the series resistance.