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Methods for modulating HIV-1 fusion cofactor expression by manipulating an accessory molecule on the surface of T cells, such as CD28, are described. The invention encompasses methods for modulating HIV-1 fusion cofactor expression by stimulating or inhibiting one or more intracellular signals which result from ligation of a surface receptor on a T cell which binds a costimulatory molecule. In one embodiment, expression of an HIV-1 fusion cofactor, such as CCR5, is downregulated by stimulating a CD28-associated signal in the T cell.