The defense community in Maryland is an R&D powerhouse.
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A device having a substrate and an enzyme attached to the substrate. The substrate has a polymeric surface having at least two conductivity states. A minimum voltage that does not cause a redox reaction in the enzyme may be applied to the polymeric surface to change the conductivity state of the surface. A method of controlling enzyme activity by providing the above substrate with polymeric surface, attaching an enzyme to the substrate, and altering the conductivity state of the polymeric surface. Changing the conductivity of the polymer can change the activity of the enzyme.