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The replacement of secret keys is a central problem in key management. Typical solutions exchange handshaking messages, involve complex computations, or require the cooperation of trusted third parties. Disclosed herein is a key replacement method that exploits the randomness of Markov models to efficiently provide fresh keys to users. Unlike other methods, the proposed method removes the need for extra communications, intensive computation, or third parties. It is demonstrated that the proposed method has perfect forward secrecy as well as resistance to known-key attacks.