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Provided herein are the polymers shown below. The value n is a positive integer. R1 is an organic group, and each R2 is H or a chemisorbed group, with at least one R2 being a chemisorbed group. The polymer may be a nanostructured film. Also provided herein is a method of: converting a di-p-xylylene paracyclophane dimer to a reactive vapor of monomers; depositing the reactive vapor onto a substrate held at an angle relative to the vapor flux to form nanostructured poly(p-xylylene) film; reacting the film with an agent to form hydrogen atoms that are reactive with a precursor of a chemisorbed group, if the film does not contain the hydrogen atoms; and reacting the hydrogen atoms with the precursor. Also provided herein is a device having a nanostructured poly(p-xylylene) film on a pivotable substrate. The film has directional hydrophobic or oleophobic properties and directional adhesive properties.