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A method for creating a microarray of biomaterial uses a source of laser energy, a receiving substrate, and a target substrate. The target substrate comprises a laser-transparent support having a laser-facing surface and a support surface. The target substrate also comprises a composite material having a back surface in contact with the support surface and a front surface. The composite material comprises a mixture of the biomaterial to be deposited and a matrix material. The matrix material is a material that has the property that, when it is exposed to laser energy, it desorbs from the laser-transparent support. The source of laser energy is positioned in relation to the target substrate so that laser energy is directed through the laser-facing surface of the target substrate and through the laser-transparent support to strike the composite material at a defined target location. The receiving substrate is positioned in a spaced relation to the target substrate. The source of laser energy has sufficient energy to desorb the composite material at the defined target location, causing the composite material to desorb from the defined target location and be lifted from the support surface of the laser-transparent support. The composite material is deposited at a defined receiving location on the receiving substrate. The steps are repeated at successive defined target locations and successive defined receiving locations such that the composite material is deposited in a microarray of deposited composite material. The method is useful for creating, for example, a gene recognition array,
A nanostructured electrode comprising a conductive electrode substrate having a surface functional group, a catalytic nanoparticle stabilized by a covalently-bound ligand bearing a peripheral functional group capable of interacting to the surface functional group, and a material capable of binding to the peripheral functional group. The conductive electrode substrate can be chemically modified and the surface functional group can create a layer of charge or chemical reactivity. The conductive electrode substrate can be chemically or electrochemically modified to create a surface functional group via covalent grafting capable of supporting multilayer deposition to create a layer of charge or chemical reactivity on the surface. The nanoparticle can be a platinum nanoparticle with covalently bonded negatively-charged ligands and the bridging material can be a polyelectrolyte.
Disclosed herein is a method for producing excess enthalpy by (a) either dispersing atomic metal ions or clusters on a support and reacting the metal ions with a chelating ligand or dispersing chelated atomic metal ions on a support and (b) pressurizing with hydrogen or deuterium to reduce the metal ion to a metal atom resulting in the growth of dispersed metal particles less than 2 nm in diameter on the support. During the particle growth, there is a growth period during which a critical particle size is reached and excess enthalpy is produced. The growth period is typically several days long.
An apparatus having within or as part of a housing; a sample port; a microarray port; a lysis module; a purification module for containing a solid phase for binding of oligonucleotides; a thermocycling module for containing a polymerase chain reaction; a fragmentation module; and a microarray module for holding a microarray and a liquid in contact with the microarray. The apparatus is configured to be coupled to a device for: pumping a liquid through, in order, the lysis, purification, thermocycling, fragmentation, and microarray modules; sonicating any contents of the lysis module; thermocycling the thermocycling module to perform the polymerase chain reaction; heating the fragmentation module to fragment any oligonucleotides contained therein; circulating a fluid over the surface of the microarray; and performing one or more washing or staining steps on the microarray.
An apparatus for mixing two or more fluids, gases or other substances and conveying said fluids, gases or other substances through a convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle to produce a highly atomized output flow that is adjustable from no atomization to full atomization, said preferred embodiment of said apparatus having a housing and a nose portion and a gripping portion, the housing including an outer conduit and an inner conduit, the outer and inner conduits positioned and arranged to convey fluids, gases and other substances from an entry point to an exit point and into the entry end of a C-D nozzle and through said C-D nozzle to produce an output flow. The location of the outer conduit, inner conduit and C-D nozzle may be adjusted to vary the output flow from no atomization to full atomization. The pressure and flow rate in each conduit may also be separately adjusted to obtain the desired output flow.
A self-contained, leak-proof sampling device and kit employing said device for collecting chemical and biological samples from various surfaces. The invention provides a sampling device and kit that may be employed to easily collect chemical and biological samples, safely transport the collected samples, safely dispense collected samples for analysis and provide optimum sample recovery. The sampling device is in the form of a leak proof container that comprises a lid and base. The lid contains a sterile absorbent collection means integrated into and positioned on the inside surface of the lid. The base contains a means to facilitate sample recovery from the absorbent collection means via compression and/or scraping of the absorbent collections means. Methods for employing the present invention are described herein.
Gold-titania (Au—TiO2) composite aerogels and ambigles were synthesized, characterized, and tested as ambient temperature catalysts for carbon monoxide. Adding alkanethiolate-monolayers-protected gold clusters (with ˜2 nm Au cores) directly to titania sol before gelation yields uniformly dispersed guests in the composite aerogel. The Au guests aggregate to 5 to 10 nm upon calcination to remove alkanethiolate and crystallize amorphous titania to anatase. The resulting composite aerogel exhibits high catalytic activity toward CO oxidation at room temperature at Au particle sizes that are essentially inactive in prior Au—TiO2 catalysts. Transmission electron microscopy illustrates the three-dimensional nature of the catalytic nanoarchitecture in which gold guests contact multiple anatase nanocrystallites.
An apparatus for mixing contents within an enclosed container, which includes a mixing element composed of a magnetically interactive material, which is configured for placement within the enclosed container, a movable member disposed outside of the enclosed container, the movable member being magnetically engageable with the mixing element, a base member for positioning the movable member proximate the enclosed container, and a motor adapted for driving the movable member in a continuous, reciprocating or oscillating motion relative to the enclosed container, wherein the movable member interacts with and urges the mixing element to translate between a first position and a second position within the container, and one of the mixing element or an end portion of the armature is a magnet.
A system and method of filtering comprising adsorbing a toxic chemical using a metal-organic framework (MOF) compound that has been post-treated with fluorocarbons using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The toxic chemical may comprise any of ammonia and cyanogen chloride. Furthermore, the toxic chemical may comprise any of an acidic/acid-forming gas, basic/base-forming gas, oxidizer, reducer, and organic gas/vapor. The toxic chemical is physically adsorbed by the MOF compound. Moreover, the toxic chemical interacts with unsaturated metal sites within the MOF. Additionally, the MOF compound may comprise any of Cu-BTC, MOF-177, and an isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) compound. The MOF compound may comprise a metal-carboxylate bond. Additionally, the MOF compound may be unstable in the presence of moisture.
A composite filtration media for removing broad spectrum toxic chemicals from streams of air comprised of a physical mixture of a zirconium hydroxide analog material and a basic gas removal material is taught in which the composite filtration media is prepared by blending the zirconium hydroxide analog material in powder form with the basic gas removal material in powder form before pressing into pellets, tablets, briquettes, or the like. Subsequent grinding of the pressed material can be employed to produce a powder form of the composite filtration media. Cross-reaction of the composite components is reduced, thus prolonging the service life of the filtration media. Effectiveness in removing ammonia and sulfur dioxide are demonstrated for various compositions of the composite filtration media in both dry and humid conditions, including after aging for three weeks in humid conditions.
A portable containment system includes a glovebox apparatus, a self-contained filter unit, and removable conduits extending therebetween. The glovebox apparatus includes a first module for releasably covering a first sidewall opening. The first module, which has body and flange portions, has a storage position where the body portion is positioned through the first sidewall opening into the glovebox interior and an operative position where the body portion is positioned exterior of the glovebox. The glovebox apparatus includes second modules for releasably covering a second sidewall opening where the second modules are smaller than the first sidewall opening for inserting the second modules into the interior of the glovebox for storage. The filter unit includes a plurality of gas filters, an air pump, and detectors for monitoring the air flow through the system.
A micro atomizer to produce stable aerosol concentrations having an aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of less than 10 microns with liquid flow rates in the microliter per minute range is provided. The micro atomizer includes a liquid channel in the shape of a thick-wall tube and a cap having an aerosol outlet orifice whereby a liquid-gas contact space is formed by the internal surface of the cap and the substantially flat end of the liquid channel. Pressurized carrier gas and the liquid to be aerosolized are allowed to come into contact within a precisely formed liquid-gas contact space. The desired aerosol characteristics are accurately established, stable, and reproducible. In an exemplary embodiment, the micro atomizer is used with a syringe and syringe drive to provide a continuous liquid source for aerosol generation.
The invention relates to methods and devices enabling simultaneous detection of several biological threat agents, including viruses and bacteria. The device includes a plurality of chambers and conduits which can be manually operated to so that reagents and sample are passed through the device and nucleic acid hybridization membranes to permit detection by the naked eye. The device has minimal logistical requirements since it is self-contained and includes all the reagents required to process a sample suspected of containing a variety of biological threat agents, it does not require electrical or other external sources of energy, it is disposable, and it can operated by a soldier or responder without microbiological training or expertise.
A system and method of filtering comprising adsorbing a toxic chemical using a metal-organic framework (MOF) compound that has been post-treated with fluorocarbons using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The toxic chemical may comprise any of ammonia and cyanogen chloride. Furthermore, the toxic chemical may comprise any of an acidic/acid-forming gas, basic/base-forming gas, oxidizer, reducer, and organic gas/vapor. The toxic chemical is physically adsorbed by the MOF compound. Moreover, the toxic chemical interacts with unsaturated metal sites within the MOF. Additionally, the MOF compound may comprise any of Cu-BTC, MOF-177, and an isoreticular metal-organic frame work (IRMOF) compound. The MOF compound may comprise a metal-carboxylate bond. Additionally, the MOF compound may be unstable in the presence of moisture.
A composition for decontaminating a highly toxic material, wherein the composition includes a modified reactive sorbent comprising a reactive sorbent in combination with a sufficient amount of an organic solvent to saturate the pores of the reactive sorbent to yield a non-slurry, free flowing mixture. The present invention is further directed to a method for making such compositions and method for decontaminating surfaces using such compositions.
The Chemical-agent Access and Neutralization System (CANS) of the present invention is a small, portable, single-use, disposable chemical treatment apparatus that is used to access and treat Chemical Agent Identification Set (CAIS) ampoules, bottles and/or containers that contain vesicant agents, or chemical warfare agents such as mustard or Lewisite. The apparatus and method of use of the present invention provides a resultant treatment residue that remains totally contained in the CANS treatment container and is safe for disposal. The CANS treatment container can be over packed into a Department of Transportation (DOT) certified shipping container, and shipped to permitted hazardous waste management facilities for ultimate disposal.
Compositions and methods useful for removing toxic industrial compounds from air are disclosed, wherein said composition comprises a mixture of hydrous metal oxide and graphite oxide. In a most preferred embodiment the composition comprises a mixture of zirconium hydroxide and graphene oxide.
The present invention relates to a novel filtration media and process for removing toxic materials from streams of air at ambient conditions using the novel filtration media. The filtration media is comprised of porous zirconium hydroxide onto which at least one reactive moiety is impregnated.
A DMMP vapor generator, system, and method includes a mixing chamber that receives heated air; at least one heating coil operatively connected to the mixing chamber, wherein the at least one heating coil receives liquid DMMP and uses the heated air to heat the liquid DMMP; a mist sprayer operatively connected to the mixing chamber, wherein the mist sprayer receives the heated liquid DMMP and atomizes the heated liquid DMMP into a DMMP aerosol; and a tube operatively connected to the mixing chamber, wherein the tube receives and vaporizes the DMMP aerosol. The DMMP vapor generator may further include a heater operatively connected to the tube, wherein the heater maintains a temperature in at least a portion of the tube to continue a steady vaporization of the DMMP aerosol. The heated air in the mixing chamber and in the at least a portion of the tube is approximately 195° F.
This invention is directed to a porous sorbent comprising a modified metal-organic framework (MOF) having a hierarchical pore structure. The MOF is modified by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with air, fluorocarbons, or other sources of fluorine. In preferred embodiments the MOFs are zirconium based. The modified MOF, while surprisingly retaining its crystal structure, comprises a mixture of micropores and mesopores and embedded fluorine atoms.
A catalytic composition is particularly well suited for hydrocarbon conversion to synthesis gas at a temperature of between 800 and 1000° Celsius. The catalytic composition includes a noble metal cluster having an X-Y-Z axial mean linear dimension of between 2 and 15 Angstroms and a super cage structure surrounding the noble metal cluster. The super cage structure stabilizes the noble metal cluster against aggregation at temperatures of 1000° Celsius. A process for reforming hydrocarbon feedstock to hydrogen and carbon monoxide is also provided that conversion to greater than 80% of theoretical yield.
A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.
A process for forming an integrated multiplex electrospray includes forming multiple holes in a ring extractor substrate to create a ring extractor. A nozzle array having multiple nozzles each nozzle defining a central axis is provided. A spacer layer is bonded to either the ring extractor or the nozzle array to form a bonded stack. The bonded stack is then aligned with remaining layer to align each of the multiple nozzles with one of the plurality of holes to less than 10 microns from concentric and the spacer layer then bonded intermediate between the ring extractor and the nozzle array layer. The spacer layer is then etched to provide fluid communication between multiple nozzles and the multiple holes of the ring extractor and form the spacer.
A compact multi-functional fuel converter and a process for converting liquid fuel to a product, which includes providing a supply of oxygen gas, providing a supply of liquid fuel, electrically atomizing the fuel, evaporating the fuel and catalytically reacting the liquid fuel and oxygen in the reactor.
The invention relates to a method and apparatus to carry out the method for extracting petroleum distillate products from alcohol. The inventive method capitalizes on the discovered property that petroleum distillates, such as xylene and limonene, can be dissociated from their tight molecular interaction with alcohol by their higher affinity for water. The method also capitalizes on the discovered property that limonene, in the presence of water, forms terpin hydrate, forming particles that can be removed by filtration. Other, non-limonene petroleum distillates, once dissociated from alcohol, can be removed by distillation.
A catalyst nanoparticle covalently bonded to a surface ligand wherein the surface ligand has a peripheral functional group having a property suitable to ensure solubility in a fluid such as a hydroxylic solvent, water, lower molecular weight alcohol, methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, or and mixtures thereof. The peripheral functional group can have an ability to couple the catalyst nanoparticle to a second catalyst nanoparticle or to a bridging material. The peripheral functional group can be capable of interacting with a surface functional group on a conductive electrode substrate. The covalently-bound ligand bearing a peripheral functional group can have a charge opposite to or chemical reactivity amenable with that of the surface functional group. A method of making a catalyst nanoparticle comprising bonding a surface ligand to a catalyst nanoparticle wherein the bonding is via a covalent bond and the surface ligand has a peripheral functional group.
In the invention, a collection device includes a flow through micro scale plate arranged to collect analyte. The plate includes holes, and sorbent coating on contact surfaces of the plate. The holes pass analyte fluid flow, for example analyte vapor so that fluid flow for collection may be generally perpendicular to the sorbent plate. Preferred embodiment plates include an integrated heater trace. In preferred embodiments, a high substantially perpendicular flow is used for collection and concentration, and during desorption and delivery a low substantially parallel flow is used. The low flow is selected to meet constraints of a detector system.
A sheath flow system having a channel with at least one fluid transporting structure located in the top and bottom surfaces situated so as to transport the sheath fluid laterally across the channel to provide sheath fluid fully surrounding the core solution. At the point of introduction into the channel, the sheath fluid and core solutions flow side by side within the channel or the core solution may be bounded on either side by the sheath fluid. The system is functional over a broad channel size range and with liquids of high or low viscosity. A wide variety of shapes of fibers and other materials can be produced from this system through the use of polymerizable material.
A process and apparatus for removing NOx from exhaust gases produced by combustion-based energy sources. An array of high voltage pulsed electron beams are repetitively generated and transported through a thin foil into the exhaust gas containing NOx. The electron beam deposits its energy into the gas and produces reactive radicals N2+, N+, e, N2 from the NOx in the gas. These radicals recombine through chemical reactions to produce benign by-products nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2 which are output into the atmosphere.
A plurality of gas jet nozzles having equal angular separation around a central axis eject gas flows towards the central axis. The gas flows collide and form a gas channel from the neutral gas, the gas channel having a gas density depression at the center of the intersecting gas flow, where the gas density depression is surrounded by a higher density gaseous wall along the central axis. Ionization of the gas in the center produces a plasma channel that can guide a laser pulse fired into the gas along the central axis. The geometric arrangement of the gas jets and/or the backing pressure of the gas flows are configured to produce a gas channel having a predetermined density profile such that the ionized gas forms a plasma channel laser guiding structure configured to guide a laser pulse having predetermined spatial parameters.
Provided is a method and apparatus for attaching a fluid cell to a planar substrate. The planar substrate may have on it sensors or devices for detecting components within the fluid, and/or be treated to selectively bind or react with components within the fluid. Substrates might include solid-state IC integrated circuit sensor microchips, glass slides, genomic and proteomic arrays, and or other suitable substrates that can make conformal contact with the fluid cell. The fluid cell can be mounted directly on top of the substrate to easily create a fluidic system in a wide variety of implementations. The assembly does not require modification of the substrate; all the fluidic connections are inherent in the apparatus. The present device can be made using low-cost materials and simple methods.
Provided photo-decontamination catalyst material comprising an optically active molecule embedded/incorporated/bridged in a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The optically active molecule is a typically a fluorophore or chromophore, more specifically, a porphyrin or phthalocyanine. The periodic mesoporous organosilica can be a template directed molecularly imprinted periodic mesoporous organosilica. The PMO material incorporating an optically active molecule is useful as a catalyst in photo-decontamination applications, as well as a detection element for stand-off point detection system.
A method and system for remotely imaging a magnetic field within an atom cloud is provided. An atom sample held in a magneto-optical trap is released, and the released atom cloud is illuminated by a Raman beam. Resonant atoms having certain velocities will absorb photon momenta from the Raman beam. The velocities of those resonant atoms will change in response to the absorbed momenta, causing a change in the travel distance of those atoms as compared with non-resonant atoms. The atom cloud is imaged by an imaging device such as a CCD camera and the presence of the resonant atoms is shown in the images as bright lines in the atom cloud. The distance traveled by the resonant atoms and therefore the separation of the lines in the image is a function of the magnetic fields in the atom cloud. The system and method of the present invention can image the magnetic fields within an atom cloud with a high spatial resolution over the entire atom cloud in a single imaging cycle, and analysis of the image provides information regarding the magnetic fields.
A device and method of using same, wherein the device includes a collimated light source operable to generate a collimated light source beam, the collimated light source beam comprising a beam cross-section. The device further includes at least one body defining a first channel in a first plane, the first channel comprising a first channel cross-section, the first channel being oriented to receive the collimated light source beam such that the beam cross-section completely overlaps the first channel cross-section. Optionally, the body defines a second channel in a second plane orthogonal to the first plane, wherein the body defines a third channel in a third plane orthogonal to the first plane.
Disclosed herein is a method of: treating an organic polymer with an electron beam-generated plasma; exposing the treated polymer to air or an oxygen- and hydrogen-containing gas, generating hydroxyl groups on the surface of the polymer; reacting the surface with an organosilane compound having a chloro, fluoro, or alkoxy group and a functional or reactive group that is less reactive with the surface than the chloro, fluoro, or alkoxy group; and covalently immobilizing a biomolecule to the functional or reactive group or a reaction product thereof.
A catalyst support which may be used to support various catalysts for use in reactions for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide including a catalyst support material and an active material capable of catalyzing a reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction associated with the catalyst support material. A catalyst for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide may be supported on the catalyst support. A method for making a catalyst for use in hydrogenation of carbon dioxide including application of an active material capable of catalyzing a reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction to a catalyst support material, the coated catalyst support material is optionally calcined, and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide is deposited on the coated catalyst support material. A process for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and for making syngas comprising a hydrocarbon, esp. methane, reforming step and a RWGS step which employs the catalyst composition of the present invention and products thereof.
A method of particle separation, wherein a collimated light source operable to generate a collimated light source beam is provided. The collimated light source beam includes a beam cross-section. A body is provided, wherein the body defines a wall and a first channel in a first plane. The first channel includes a first channel cross-section, the first channel being oriented to receive the collimated light source beam such that the beam cross-section completely overlaps the channel cross-section. The collimated light source beam is transmitted through the channel. A fluid sample is transmitted through the channel, fluid sample including a plurality of particles of a same type. All of the particles of the plurality of particles are separated axially along the collimated light source beam. All of the particles of the plurality of particles are retained against the wall in the collimated light source beam.
A flow separation system for separating multicomponent fluids into components having different buoyancies. The system can deaerate fluids, and segregate solid particles into a channel for removal or real time particle analysis. The system can have, positioned axially within a housing, a cup shaped first member having an axial passageway and a concave inner surface, a second member with a surface that forms a gap with the first member, the gap directing the flow into at least one helical channel. The flow exits the helical channel into a separation chamber positioned between the second member and a third member and separates into spinning heavier flow portion and a more buoyant portion that is driven toward the central axis. The third member has central fluid passageway that collects the higher buoyancy fluid and least one other fluid passageway for carrying lower buoyancy fluid, with an inlet positioned radially outward of the central fluid passageway.
A magnetic bead trap-and-mixer includes a channel having openings at opposing ends, and a rotor adjacent to the channel and comprising a permanent magnet, wherein the rotor is adapted to apply a magnetic field to the channel of sufficient strength to direct the movement of magnetic beads therein. In aspects, the channel is straight and/or has narrowed end. In further aspects, the rotor generates in the channel areas of areas of strong magnetic fields alternating with areas of very weak magnetic fields and the strong magnetic fields extend entirely across the channel.
A mixing vessel may include a container having a bottom with a removable plate fixed to the bottom. The removable plate may include one or more slots for inserting baffles therein. A flexible baffle insert may include a retaining band having inner and outer opposing surfaces. A plurality of baffles may extend inwardly from the inner surface of the retaining band.
A casting nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle body made from a cured photopolymer. A conductive metal coats the exterior surfaces of the nozzle body to a thickness in the range of about 2-about 4 ten-thousandths of an inch.