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A method for recovering carbon dioxide from acidified seawater using a membrane contactor and passing seawater with a pH less than or equal to 6 over the outside of a hollow fiber membrane tube while applying vacuum or a hydrogen sweep gas to the inside of the hollow fiber membrane tube, wherein up to 92% of the re-equilibrated [CO2]T is removed from the natural seawater.
The present invention is generally directed to a system for recovering CO2 from seawater or aqueous bicarbonate solutions using a gas permeable membrane with multiple layers. At elevated pressures, gaseous CO2 and bound CO2 in the ionic form of bicarbonate and carbonate diffuse from the seawater or bicarbonate solution through the multiple layers of the membrane. Also disclosed is the related method of recovering CO2 from seawater or aqueous bicarbonate solutions.
Incoming wastewater is preheated in a heat exchanger before delivery to a flash chamber through an orifice for flashing into water vapor rising into an upper section of the flash chamber which also has a bottom section into which liquid waste oil or other contaminants settles. Rise of such water vapor into the upper chamber section is induced by a vacuum established therein by a vacuum pump withdrawing the water vapor in a superheated and compressed condition for cooling within a condenser from which the incoming wastewater is delivered to a heat exchanger for preheating. The water vapor during rise into the upper section of the flash chamber is filtered to extract contaminates therefrom while liquefied water vapor thereafter formed therein is collected before the remaining water vapor is cooled into the condensate for collection within a distillate tank from which it is withdrawn for overboard discharge after being monitored for oil content. The waste oil and other contaminants in the flash chamber are also withdrawn for separate collection and storage. Such collections of the condensate extracted from the water vapor, the liquefied water vapor and the waste oil and other contaminants are effected by pumps driven under automatic control.
An optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter system. An OSL reader configured to produce data indicative of a radiation exposure, one or more OSL dosimeters fabricated from a thermoluminescent material, a light stimulation source configured to stimulate the OSL dosimeter to produce luminescence emissions, and a light-detection system that measures the intensity of such luminescence emissions and converts the electrical signal to a binary string that can be processed by an appropriately programmed computer configured to analyze data from the reader and produce data indicative of an extent of radiation exposure. Dose information is obtained without requiring heating of the dosimeter. The dosimeter can be interrogated multiple times with minimal loss of dose information.
A bioreactor tank is internally partitioned into two chambers within which wastewater is respectively aerated and from which a bacteria purified permeate is withdrawn after filtration, while a high bacteria content remnant is recycled between the chambers to repeatedly undergo biological treatment by aeration within one of the tank chambers.
The invention is directed to an optimized two-chamber eductor based incinerator system. The two-chamber optimized incinerator system includes a primary and a secondary combustion chamber, the system having a single fuel fired burner located in one of the secondary combustion chamber, or the eductor. The system also includes an eductor connecting the primary combustion chamber to the secondary combustion chamber, the eductor creating a recirculation flow through the first and the second combustion chambers.
A process for removing epoxides from a process stream over a wide range of temperature and relative humidity, comprising the step of contacting the process stream with a filtration media comprising an acid form of a mesoporous zeolite produced from pentasil zeolite treated with a caustic agent, for a sufficient time to remove the epoxides therefrom.
A residual life indicator for determining the residual life of a filter has a first sample filter with an inlet coupleable to an inlet of the filter whose residual life is to be determined, a second sample filter having an inlet coupleable to an outlet of the filter whose residual life is to be determined, a chemical tracer source selectively coupled to the inlets of the first and second sample filters, and a detector selectively coupled to outlets of the first and second filters.
A water sampling device and method for use with a radiation probe. The device includes a base, filtrate reservoir, filter media support disc, and sample reservoir. The sample reservoir may be interchanged with a radiation probe adaptor. The device and method provide a simple and convenient means to separate particulate solids from a water sample prior to measuring radioactivity without the need for a heat source or electrical power to evaporate the water. The device and method can be used with a variety of commercially available radiation probes and is suitable for field applications.
The present invention is directed to a container for the collection and temporary storage of amalgams and other mercury wastes. The container can include a hollow body with air-tight lid, and one or more mercury sorbents contained in a filter bag. The filter bag covers the inside surface of the hollow body and has holes that allow air exchange between the air in the hollow body and the sorbents. As air exchange occurs, mercury vapors released from dental wastes binds to the mercury binding materials. A self-closing door was made on the lid, which automatically closes after each waste disposal.
A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) neutron detector comprising a silicon-on-insulator structure, wherein the silicon-on-insulator structure consists of an active semiconductor layer, a buried layer, and a handle substrate, a lateral carrier transport and collection detector structure within the active semiconductor layer of the silicon-on-insulator structure, and a neutron to high energy particle converter layer on the active semiconductor layer.
A device having: a scintillator material having an atom having an atomic number of at least 45, and one or more photomultiplier tubes adjacent to the scintillator material.
An improved thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) system, which includes a TLD reader configured to produce data indicative of a radiation exposure, one or more dosimeters comprising a dosimeter substrate coated with a thin layer of a light-absorbing material, a light stimulation source configured to heat the dosimeter using light incident on the dosimeter coating, a light detection system to detect TL emission and an appropriately programmed computer configured to analyze data from the reader and to output data indicative of an extent of radiation exposure.
Caesium-137 irradiates electronic paper. An incoming gamma-ray from the Cs-137 interacts with a particle inside a micro-container by generating a recoil electron and/or a hole. Because the recoil electron physically leaves the particle, the particle is charged depending on the dose from the radiation source. And, the charge of the particles change, which results in a movement of the particles within the micro-container. After refreshing the electronic paper, a visible difference in the gray-scale can be seen. Thus, the visible difference in the gray-scale is an effect caused by the irradiation of the electronic paper, showing sensitivity to high energy radiation—thus, non-optimized electronic paper is sensitive to high energy radiation and can be used as a radiation dosimeter. In addition, electronic paper can be used for sensing chemical and bio-chemical agents, as well as detecting high energy radiation.
Wastewater is delivered to a single tank of a bioreactor system to undergo biological treatment. After undergoing such biological treatment, the wastewater is centrifugally separated outside the tank into contaminated portions with lowered and increased concentration of solids therein to respectively undergo filtration within a small volume chamber of the tank and continuous return to a large volume chamber for biological retreatment during operation of the bioreactor system. Under different conditions of the wastewater delivered to the tank, one of the separated portions of the biologically treated wastewater is disposed of by direct discharge in by-pass relation to the small chamber when delivery thereof into the small chamber is interrupted under selective valve control.
Typical practice of the present invention performs measurement and processing of two forms of light emissions—viz., unfiltered and filtered—of a core-valence luminescent (CVL) scintillator impinged by ionizing radiation emanating from a radioactive source. When unfiltered, the CVL scintillator light emission is inclusive of gamma emissions and neutron emissions. When filtered by a filtering apparatus that transmits CVL light only, the CVL scintillator light emission is inclusive of gamma emissions but is exclusive of neutron emissions. Algorithmic comparison between the two sets of empirical data provides discriminative information regarding gamma emissions versus neutron emissions. Essentially, the difference is taken between the unfiltered pulse height spectra data and the filtered pulse height data. The set of pulse height spectral data thus computed via subtraction is indicative of the portion of the CVL scintillator light emissions that is inclusive of neutron emissions but is exclusive of gamma emissions.
Dosimeter chips are widely distributed over a territorial area. This is followed by photographing the area from above to produce a color photograph. The color photograph is compared with radiation/color calibration data for the dosimeter chips. The total radiation accumulation is determined from the calibration data. The invention is for emergency use after civil accidents, for ascertaining a threat to military personnel before entering the battlefield or for interrogating a ship at sea.